Specialist Study

Monday 22nd May 2017 – Reflective Statement

The focus of the Specialist Study module was an attempt to look at the refugee crisis through the eyes of those experiencing these circumstances first hand, the refugees themselves, their experience, their treatment, the barriers and the stereotyping that they face on a daily basis.

A long held belief of the artist that humanity, dignity and respect are basic human rights that everyone deserves irrespective of his or her circumstances, the refugee crisis highlights to the artist the lack of humanity in our society today.

Inspired by the increasing efforts of many artists to raise awareness of the refugee crisis, in particular, Ai Wei Wei and the Migration Museum, the artist wanted to create a platform that says, “Look at how these people are treated, this could be you or me”.

The techniques of Video/Projection Artists such as Alan Whifield and Rebecca Smith have inspired me throughout this process to keep pushing my boundaries in relation to the video production for this module further developing my skills and interest in this area.

I wanted to push my experience of video and project further than it has been to date with the intention of working with projection mapping and digital graffiti and although I did some work in this area, I had hoped to do more. I made the conscious decision to leave this experimentation until my third year.

The project developed seemed to develop an impetus of its own and moved in a different direction, I gained a lot of satisfaction from knitting the blankets from dustsheets, which is the direction I ultimately followed for my final piece.

This has been a particularly long project, however the break to concentrate on the Galeri project proved valuable, I then found I had a new clarity about this project when I returned to it. I feel that I was able to improve the final piece further.

I was asked to assemble my Final Installation at short notice prior to the Easter Holidays, I felt I rose to the challenge and having previously understood my requirements for this installation, I was able to produce the installation within the timescale requested.

Monday 22nd May 2017 – Project Documents

Practice in Context – Sculpture

Monday 22nd May 2017 – Reflection

I feel that I have progressed immensely with the Sculpture Module this year. At first to be honest I wasn’t to happy to be creating work with no context but soon got into the playfulness of doing just for the sake of doing.

I had quite a few fails along with successes and I think that I stretched each piece using either photography and digital manipulation or video. I also used skills gained in the Video module to create the video that is to accompany the sculpture exhibition.

I really enjoyed making the coral sculptures and envisaged that I could make an entire room filled with them in response to the death of the Great Barrier Reef.

I took advantage of my trips to Pontio to learn different methods that can be used within sculpture and I feel that I gained more insight into sculpture as a result of this.

Tuesday 16th May 2017 – Video of Corals

After a request from Helen to create a video to accompany our Sculptures that are to be exhibited, I decided to record some video of the sculptures to include with the exhibition. My plan is to overlay the video of my coral with video of reflections in water and some real footage of the Great Barrier Reef, my piece seems to have gained a very current environmental context all of it’s own making.

The video below is just the raw video but I wanted to include some in my blog here.

Tuesday 9th May 2017 – Sketchbook

All of my sketches have been placed into a sketchbook for the assessment.

Practice in Context – Video

Monday 22nd May 2017 – Reflection

During this second year of study my confidence with video has increased a lot and I have found that video has become an integral part of my artwork (in all areas).

So far, I have uploaded 50 videos to my Vimeo Account, and this is only a small portion of the videos I have created.

I have found that the work done this year has given me a solid foundation and some good ideas for moving forward into the 3rd Year. In theExtended Practice (ARF 503) and Specialist Study (ARF 505) modules in particular I have been keen to experiment in video and move towards Projection Mapping, however in taking smaller steps this year and becoming more confident with the software, I feel I am better placed to achieve my future goals of at least experiencing projection mapping.

As part of my role as Blog Ambassador I have been on hand to help other students with their Premiere Pro and Photoshop related issues.

During the preparation for the Galeri Exhibition I was also asked to create a Talking Heads Video from footage recorded by Helen of each of the artists answering questions posed by Emrys. I have also been asked to do this again for the third year exhibition.

All in all, far more confident in Video Work and this has impacted the other modules that I have also worked on this year.

Sunday 19th March 2017

Research: After Effects

In late 2016, we collaborated with Mai Family Services, a Michigan based NGO to launch a film addressing the issue of domestic violence that women in the South Asian and larger immigrant community face in the United States.

Written by Sofia Ashraf, and featuring the voice of Ratna Pathak Shah, this spoken word piece aims to raise awareness regarding the unaddressed problems these women endure everyday.

https://vimeo.com/channels/aework

https://vimeo.com/channels/aework/184319992

So this is how its done! The A -Z of creating a project with yours truly and my talented band of magicians. I wanted to show all the different steps involved in the creation process while adding an explosion of colour and wackiness to it all! And of course everything is shot in camera frame by frame with the magic of stop-motion!!

This film is to remind us to stand united and continue to strive for a better, more connected world where all are respected as equals. We might think or look differently but in the end we are all human beings. We hope this piece conjures up some inspiration to act with strength and compassion in all of our daily interactions.

Let us stand together.

Division & Unity is a comment on how our digital age has shaped and influenced us, and a message of how we’re stronger together.

NONE is a short film that explores the balance of light and darkness.  It has a personal narrative which plays with the notion of finding yourself amidst the noise around you.

Practice in Context – Printmaking

Monday 22nd May 2017 – Final Reflection

I think the experience I have gained in Printmaking during my second year at Coleg Menai has been invaluable and has helped me become more confident and assured as an artist.

In my Specialist Study (ARF 505) module I used the prints that I created in this module as as part of a Projection Experimentation. Here are some of the results that I achieved. I really like the idea of using prints to further develop digital artwork involving video and projection and see this as a potential way forward.

Wednesday 17th May 2017 – My Book Arrived

My Digital Book arrived today, I am so pleased with the outcome of this.

Friday 12th May 2017 – Mounting Prints

I printed my prints onto Lokta Paper for presentation at the assessment. I then mounted the prints onto mount board.

Friday 12th May 2017 – Print Scholarship

Having been further inspired by the print making experience I have gained during the second year at Coleg Menai I decided to apply for the Print Scholarship at the Wrexham Regional Print Centre and I have been spending the past couple of weeks preparing my application.

The Blog Post Application for Printmaking Scholarship contains the details of this application.

Proof-Web-Banner-English-1

Saturday 22nd April 2017 – Digital Book

I created a Digital Book to accompany the handmade book of prints. The Proofs are displayed below:

This book included the poem The Day the War Came by the childrens author Nicola Davies.

The Day the War Came

The day war came there were flowers on the window sill
and my father sang my baby brother back to sleep.
My mother made my breakfast, kissed my nose
and walked with me to school.

That morning I learned about volcanoes, I sang a song about how tadpoles turn at last to frogs.
I made a picture of myself with wings.
Then, just after lunch, while I watched a cloud shaped like a dolphin, war came.
At first, just like a spattering of hail
a voice of thunder…
then all smoke and fire and noise, that I didn’t understand.

It came across the playground.
It came into my teacher’s face.
It brought the roof down.
and turned my town to rubble.
I can’t say the words that tell you
about the blackened hole that had been my home.
All I can say is this:
war took everything
war took everyone
I was ragged, bloody, all alone.

I ran. Rode on the back of trucks, in buses;
walked over fields and roads and mountains,
in the cold and mud and rain;
on a boat that leaked and almost sank
and up a beach where babies lay face down in the sand.
I ran until I couldn’t run
until I reached a row of huts
and found a corner with a dirty blanket
and a door that rattled in the wind
But war had followed me.
It was underneath my skin,
behind my eyes,
and in my dreams.
It had taken possession of my heart.

I walked and walked to try and drive war out of myself,
to try and find a place it hadn’t reached.
But war was in the way that doors shut when I came down the street
It was in the way the people didn’t smile, and turned away.

I came to a school.
I looked in through the window.
They were learning all about volcanoes
And drawing birds and singing.
I went inside.
My footsteps echoed in the hall
I pushed the door and faces turned towards me
but the teacher didn’t smile.
She said, there is no room for you,
you see, there is no chair for you to sit on,
you have to go away.
And then I understood that war had got here too.

I turned around and went back to the hut, the corner and the blanket
and crawled inside.
It seemed that war had taken all the world and all the people in it.
The door banged.
I thought it was the wind.
But a child’s voice spoke
“I brought you this,” she said “so you can come to school.”
It was a chair. A chair for me to sit on and learn about volcanoes, frogs and singing
And drive the war out of my heart.
She smiled and said “My friends have brought theirs too, so all the children here can come to school”
Out of every hut a child came and we walked together,
on a road all lined with chairs.
Pushing back the war with every step.

Saturday 8th April 2017 – Handmade Book

I prepared a handmade book that contained all of my prints and the associated aluminium plates.

Richard Long

After feedback from Emrys and Helen about the Contextual Studies 2 (ARF 501) Presentation I have spent some time thinking about Richard Long.

Richard Long also has an affinity with nature and his work, which is often a documentation of his walks in the landscape, is about his interaction with the environment. While some of Richard Long’s walks are recorded by a photograph others, such as In the Clouds 1991 are text based. These pieces are sparse in nature, with a handful of words chosen to describe the long walks the artist makes all over the world.

http://www.tate.org.uk/artist-rooms/collection/themes/artist-rooms-theme-language

My only knowledge of Richard Long is from the “A Line made by Walking” piece that he created in 1967.

A Line Made by Walking exists now only in a photograph. This, too, is part of the iconoclastic nature – and the imaginative power – of Long’s art, that it is often as transient and impermanent as anything in the natural world around it. The grass has long since grown back over the track he left that day in a field of wild flowers somewhere in England. It is quite conceivable that no one else actually saw the original work, or, if they did, recognised it as his, or indeed, as a work of art at all.

“The work often has all kinds of echoes,” Long says, “some accidental. If you undertake a walk, you are echoing the whole history of mankind, from the early migrations out of Africa on foot that took people all over the world.”

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2009/may/10/art-richard-long

“All truly great thoughts are conceived by walking,” wrote Nietzsche. Richard Long’s great thought while walking was to make his walking into his art. In an illuminating catalogue essay for Heaven and Earth, Nicholas Serota, director of the Tate, writes, “In A Line Made by Walking (1967), a work made at the age of 22, Long changed our notion of sculpture and gave new meaning to an activity as old as man himself. Nothing in the history of art quite prepared us for the originality of his action.”

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2009/may/10/art-richard-long

‘I’m proud of being the first person to cross Dartmoor in a straight line’

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2017/apr/16/richard-long-earth-sky-houghton-hall-interview

This formative piece was made on one of Long’s journeys to St Martin’s from his home in Bristol. Between hitchhiking lifts, he stopped in a field in Wiltshire where he walked backwards and forwards until the flattened turf caught the sunlight and became visible as a line. He photographed this work, and recorded his physical interventions within the landscape.
Although this artwork underplays the artist’s corporeal presence, it anticipates a widespread interest in performative art practice. This piece demonstrates how Long had already found a visual language for his lifelong concerns with impermanence, motion and relativity.

http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/long-a-line-made-by-walking-p07149

When Emrys first mentioned Richard Long in the presentation I gave, I was a bit unsure where the link to this artist would be, however as I began to research him it became quickly apparent that I could see not only a link to his outdoor work but also his Textworks as well, I began to see the connection to Richard Long more clearly.

He mediates his experience of these places, from mountains through to deserts, shorelines, grasslands, rivers and snowscapes, according to archetypal geometric marks and shapes, made by his footsteps alone or gathered from the materials of the place. These walks and temporary works of passage are recorded with photographs, maps and text works, where measurements of time and distance, place names and phenomena are vocabulary for both original ideas and powerful, condensed narratives.

http://www.lissongallery.com/artists/richard-long

60 Minute Walk (1990)

This piece adds support to my thinking about combining screen printing methods with other printing methods, in my case digital, in this case Lithograph.

https://i2.wp.com/www.tate.org.uk/art/images/work/AL/AL00207_10.jpgThis lithograph and screen print, which measuring 189.50 cm high, stands roughly the size of a man and catalogues a series of experiences noted during a sixty-minute walk. The number 60 runs throughout the piece, which features 60 lines of texts and was then reproduced into 60 prints. With this repetition, Long draws our attention to the temporal quality of this walk, presenting us with one descriptive word or phrase for every minute of his journey, describing what he saw, heard, felt, and did.

The letters sit atop a black and gray background which Long created by applying ink onto the surface directly with his fingertips. Against this minimal background, each line contains only one to three words, making the text long and narrow as if the words are walking down the original path in Big Bend, Texas.

Long experiments here with a different process of recording his actions; rather than photograph the walk, he wrote a poem and then presented that poem in a way that recalls the physical experience of the original in simple terms. The words are concise and the background of the poem is a monochromatic, gestural expression. Yet, the artwork still remains conceptual, as the audience can never fully envision the actual event and is left with only the poetic fragments.

Lithograph and screen print – Museum of Modern Art, New York

http://www.theartstory.org/artist-long-richard-artworks.htm

Text Works

His Textworks, I find particularly interesting and they have piqued my interest because of the symmetry in their design (everything always has to be symmetrical for me) and the palindromic nature, a new obsession of mine, particularly with poetry is the palindrome.

Outdoor Works

A hamlet once stood here … White Deer Circle, 2016.Houghton Hall is a venerable stately home these days, but White Deer Circle, as this work is called, is new – created by Richard Long for an exhibition that, unusually for this visionary land artist, is being held outdoors. His stump circle is an uncanny echo of a Seahenge, an ancient wooden circle discovered on a beach 12 miles away. Amazingly, Long, who this year marks 50 years of showing his walking-inspired work, has never heard of the bronze age relic. Perhaps Long is listening to the landscape more closely than most, though, for he is unsurprised by such serendipity.

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2017/apr/16/richard-long-earth-sky-houghton-hall-interview

They accompany the permanent long sculpture, ‘Full Moon Circle‘, which was commissioned for Houghton in 2003. There will also be large mud works in the outdoor colonnades and smaller-scale works in gallery spaces, as well as historic material relating to the artist’s career.

https://www.experiencenorfolk.uk/whats-on/land-sky-richard-long-houghton/

'Full Moon Circle' by Richard Long

Richard Long in the Stone Hall at Houghton Hall 

The sturdy splendour of the Stone Hall currently has even more to draw the eye. Richard Long, the British land artist, has installed a work beneath the chandelier as part of his summer show at Houghton, Earth Sky. This particular piece stops you in your tracks more than the others – it’s a black, white and grey circle of rocks, formatted as compass coordinates. It brings the wild irregularity of nature inside, but ordered perfectly, as if by magic. “I will certainly miss this piece when it’s gone,” says Rocksavage. “It’s an incredible architectural intervention.”

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/luxury/art/richard-long-earth-sky-houghton-hall/

 

 

 

 

Joseph Beuys

After feedback from Emrys and Helen about the Contextual Studies 2 (ARF 501) Presentation I have spent some time thinking about Joseph Beuys and how he might influence my artwork.

While Holzer is known for inserting her political statements into the public sphere, the German artist Joseph Beuys is lauded for his role using art for social transformation. Beuys positioned himself as artist, teacher and educator often articulating his thinking through extensive lectures, using blackboards to illustrate his ideas in works such as For the lecture: The social organism – a work of art, Bochum, 2nd March 1974 1974. Beuys own words were inextricably linked with the artwork itself in part because of his role as a teacher and activist.

Much of Beuys’s work was focused on the environment – many of actions would take place in the landscape.

http://www.tate.org.uk/artist-rooms/collection/themes/artist-rooms-theme-language

I was interested to learn, Joseph Beuys was considered a Pedagogue (a Strict, Pedantic Teacher). I can relate to having a pedantic nature and can be a bit this way myself sometimes.

Joseph Beuys (German:[ˈjoːzɛf ˈbɔʏs]; 12 May 1921 – 23 January 1986) was a German Fluxus, happening, and performance artist as well as a sculptor, installation artist, graphic artist, art theorist, and pedagogue.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Beuys

This started me thinking about the blackboard I had seen in the Tate Gallery. His work is provokative, stimulating a reaction and engagement from the audience. I too like to stimulate a reaction, I’m not concerned with whether people like my work, only that in viewing my work something has changed within them, that my work has provoked a reaction, either good or bad.

During the 1970s, Beuys lectured extensively on art and politics, and the task of creating a genuinely democratic society.

arts-graphics-2005_1158438a1

In the Duveen Galleries, in what is now Tate Britain, Beuys lectured on humanity’s natural creative capacity and the power of direct democracy to shape society. He chalked his conceptual theories onto the three leftmost blackboards (the fourth was used in a subsequent action at Whitechapel Gallery) and engaged the crowd in a free-form and often tense discussion.

http://www.tate.org.uk/visit/tate-modern/display/artist-and-society/joseph-beuys

Four Blackboards 1972 by Joseph Beuys 1921-1986

This series of three blackboards were used to illustrate an event held at Tate in 1972, in which Beuys discussed his ideas about communication and grassroots democracy. A fourth blackboard, not displayed here, was used during a subsequent lecture at the Whitechapel Gallery.

Gallery label, March 2003

http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/beuys-four-blackboards-t03594

This lit a spark in my mind given my recent delve into the theories of Pedagogy, Creative Processes and Autoethnography in Education discussed in my blog post Creative Flow.

beuystreeThe subtitle of this work indicates that 7,000 Oaks was fundamentally a time-based, or “process” work of environmentalism and eco-urbanization. Beuys planted 7000 trees in the small, historic city of Kassel, Germany, over several years (carried out with the assistance of volunteers), each oak accompanied by a stone of basalt. Beuys’s concerted effort to physically, spiritually and metaphorically alter the city’s social spaces – economic, political, and cultural, among others – is what finally constituted a community-wide “social sculpture” (Beuys’s own terminology). 7000 Oaks officially began in 1982 at Documenta 7, the international exhibition of modern and contemporary art that is organized, by a guest curator, at Kassel every five years (since 1955). Beuys’s own ecological “happening” drew to an official close five years later, at Documenta 8, after being continued by others for a full year after Beuys’s own death.

7000 oak trees and 7000 basalt stones – Kassel, Germany

http://www.theartstory.org/artist-beuys-joseph-artworks.htm

Joseph Beuys and Andy Warhol

 A playful balance between Beuys the warm with Warhol the cold.

The chalkboard, a tool used by Beuys with cold and inhuman computer printouts, something Warhol would have liked. The wax prints are warmed up (a la Beuys). The poem in the center speaks to inside out, hot and cold.

https://www.spudart.org/blog/joseph-beuys-andy-warhol/

I really like the use of a blackboard in Joseph Beuys work and have previously considered the idea that something like this could be used to record daily thoughts or happenings over a period of time to create a piece of artwork.

Text in Art

After feedback from Emrys and Helen about the Contextual Studies 2 (ARF 501) Presentation I have spent some time thinking about Text in Art.

The terms ‘visual language’ or ‘vocabulary’ are typically used to describe the distinct characteristics of an artisthttp://www.tate.org.uk/artist-rooms/collection/themes/artist-rooms-theme-language’s practice. This employment of words is apt within the context of modern and contemporary art, since the use of written or spoken word has been a significant feature of artists’ practices since the early twentieth century. The use of letters and words in artworks is traditionally associated with authorship – the artist’s signature or inscription, often towards bottom of a painting or drawing.

http://www.tate.org.uk/artist-rooms/collection/themes/artist-rooms-theme-language

Graffitti Artists

Street and graffiti artists have always been using the power of letters and written words to attract attention of distracted bystanders, hungry for meaning and significance. For graffiti lettering it all began with letters and symbols scrawled on public surfaces, and when one looks at the work created by ten creators featured on the following list, it becomes clear how those markings evolved in beautiful and unexpected ways over the years. Some of them explore the beauty of lettering itself by creating complex and almost mystical calligraphic images, while others strive with great passion to achieve more simple, yet deeply philosophical use of typography as a vehicle to convey their messages.

http://www.widewalls.ch/10-artists-that-write-their-art/

Jenny Holzer

Jenny Holzer (born July 29, 1950, Gallipolis, Ohio) is an American neo-conceptual artist, based in Hoosick Falls, New York. The main focus of her work is the delivery of words and ideas in public spaces.

Holzer belongs to the feminist branch of a generation of artists that emerged around 1980, looking for new ways to make narrative or commentary an implicit part of visual objects. Her contemporaries include Barbara Kruger, Cindy Sherman, Sarah Charlesworth, and Louise Lawler.

http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artists/jenny-holzer-1307

Truisms 1984 by Jenny Holzer born 1950
Truisms 1984 © Jenny Holzer

Idris Khan

  Lately, I’ve been exploring the use of text in my artwork. Many artists employ text – I’m thinking about artists like Joseph Kosuth, Ed Ruscha, Jasper Johns, Cy Twombly, etc. And recently I was introduced to the work of photographer, Idris Kahn and quickly discovered his artwork as well. Kahn, a London based artist, uses large stamped lines of text in his work. The text is inspired by Nietzsche. There’s something really compelling about Kahn’s work and I keep coming back to it again and again.

Hans Haacke

Hans Haacke‘s work questions systems of power and can be nicely packaged in the blanket of institutional critique. His most attractive piece is Shapolsky et al. Manhattan Real Estate Holdings, A Real Time Social System, as of May 1, 1971 (1971), an abstracted infographic linking a wealthy land owner (Shapolsky) to buildings he purchased. I haven’t seen it in a while, but it painted the guy as a slumlord and really dug into the shell companies used to purchase the land indirectly. It caused quite a stir at the time, and the Guggenheim refused it for Haacke’s solo show (possibly due to his politicizing a tie with the Guggenheim’s Board).

https://www.quora.com/Who-are-the-major-conceptual-artists-who-mainly-use-words-in-their-art

main-qimg-75eda7ac97d7a48b69ed28f58725d1a0

Bruce Nauman

Bruce Nauman is known for his wordplay and interest in banality. His most famous works are neon signs.

https://www.quora.com/Who-are-the-major-conceptual-artists-who-mainly-use-words-in-their-art

Martin Creed

Martin Creed (born 1968) is a British artist and musician. He won the Turner Prize in 2001 for Work No. 227: The lights going on and off. Creed lives and works in London.

http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artists/martin-creed-2760

Work No. 203: EVERYTHING IS GOING TO BE ALRIGHT 1999 by Martin Creed born 1968
Work No. 203: EVERYTHING IS GOING TO BE ALRIGHT 1999 © Martin Creed

Lawrence Weiner

TAKEN TO AS DEEP AS THE SEA CAN BE 2005 by Lawrence Weiner born 1942
TAKEN TO AS DEEP AS THE SEA CAN BE 2005 © Lawrence Weiner

Lawrence Weiner (born February 10, 1942) is one of the central figures in the formation of conceptual art in the 1960s.

His work often takes the form of typographic texts.

The Weiner works in the ARTIST ROOMS collection consist of a cycle of ten wall texts; each statement such as Tied Up in Knots 1988 and Roughly Ripped Apart 1988 suggests a physical action or invoke the manipulation of an object or matter. Weiner regards his language works as sculptures, and they can be seen as instructions or propositions that could be enacted. These works are displayed as vinyl lettering applied directly to the exhibition surface. The artist’s aim is to offer a universal, objective experience in which the reader is invited to execute the work through his or her own imagination.

http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artists/lawrence-weiner-7743

Weiner is regarded as a founding figure of Postminimalism’s Conceptual art, which includes artists like Douglas Huebler, Robert Barry, Joseph Kosuth, and Sol LeWitt.[5]

Weiner began his career as an artist as a very young man at the height of Abstract Expressionism. His debut public work/exhibition was at the age of 19, with what he called Cratering Piece. An action piece, the work consisted of explosives set to ignite simultaneously in the four corners of a field in Marin County, California. That work, as Weiner later developed his practice as a painter, became an epiphany for the turning point in his career.[6] His work in the early 1960s included six years of making explosions in the landscape of California to create craters as individual sculptures.[7] He is also known during his early work for creating gestures described in simple statements leading to the ambiguity of whether the artwork was the gesture or the statement describing the gesture: e.g.”Two minutes of spray paint directly on the floor..” or ” A 36″ x 36″ removal of lathing or support wall…” (both 1968). In 1968, when Sol LeWitt came up with his Paragraphs on Conceptual Art, Weiner formulated his “Declaration of Intent” (1968):

1. The artist may construct the piece.
2. The piece may be fabricated.
3. The piece need not be built.

Each being equal and consistent with the intent of the artist the decision as to condition rests with the receiver upon the occasion of receivership.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lawrence_Weiner

Mario Merz

Works form the early twentieth century where appropriated words, letters and symbols were increasingly incorporated, such as Francis Picabia’s The Fig-Leaf 1922 and Kurt Schwitters’s Mz.299 1922, reflected the emerging avant-garde movements of the time. This period also saw an increasing presence of the printed word in the urban landscape and the developing sophistication of marketing and advertising.

The Italian artist Mario Merz began using neon in 1966, his neon texts were often juxtaposed against everyday objects as is the case with Che Fare? 1968-73. The words ‘Che Fare’ in neon resemble handwriting sunk into a pot of wax that melts under the heat of the neon. Che Fare translates as ‘What is to be Done?’ taken from the title of a political pamphlet produced by Russian revolutionary Vladimir Lenin in 1902. The text is widely regarded as advocating a political party to promote Marxism within the working classes and has come to define the drama of an individual’s engagement in modern society.

http://www.tate.org.uk/artist-rooms/collection/themes/artist-rooms-theme-language